George Washington was commander in chief of the continental army during the Revolutionary War in 1775-1781 and the first president of the United States in 1789-1897. Naturally, the bookplate of such a person is of great interest to collectors and historians. There is a legend that the idea of a star-striped American flag was conceived from the stars and stripes on the coat of arms of Washington, but this is doubtful. Benjamin Franklin – an associate of Washington, one of the designers of the Great Seal of the United States, spoke about the stars and stripes on the coat of arms: “We, not he – he did not know this, took his coat of arms, multiplied and glorified his path to our magnificent national banner” . This was written in the poem Drama in Five Acts (A Drama in Five Acts. New York. 1876). popular English poet M.F. Tapper (M.F. Tupper) and consistent with the patriotic impulse of society. The story was repeated many times and served as an occasion for this legend. George Washington himself said the following about the meaning of the flag design: “We took the stars from the sky, red is the color of our Motherland, the white stripes that separate it mean that we have separated from it, these white stripes will go down in history as a symbol of Freedom.”
Bookplate of J. Washington – Rococo-style heraldic chippendale. The emblem of the family, which has been Continue reading
For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies — gained access there.
Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions with a square” Continue reading
Linocut got its name from linoleum material. Linoleum as a material for engraving originated in Europe, and at the beginning of the first decade of the 20th century in Russia. The first Russian artist to use linocut N.I. Sheverdyaev, and in this technique was a great success. Among those Russian artists who seriously took up linoleum and studied its technology was I.N. Pavlov. In his prints, he exhaustively showed the tonal and textural capabilities of a new material for that time. The artist V.D. did a lot for the development of linocut Falileev. In his hand-printed engravings, he showed new uses for opaque oil paints, achieving remarkable effects that leave a great impression.
Engraving on linoleum was done by such artists as B.M. Kustodiev, M.V. Matorin, P.N. Staronosov, I.A. Sokolov, V.A. Favorsky, N.I. Piskarev and Continue reading