What fundamentally different modern approach to home design from previous periods? A resident of a modern metropolis pays great attention to the functionality of his home, of course, seeks to make it attractive and harmonious. Nevertheless, the main difference of our time is a clear division into useful and demon, functional and decorative, necessary and not so.
A wealthy Renaissance homeowner could hardly have imagined such a fractional picture. In his understanding, the ideal home was to harmoniously combine architecture, functionality and decor. Works of art were an integral part of the equation, testifying not only to the individuality of their owner, but also about his position in society, the size of his condition, the diversity of interests and the presence or absence of taste. Behind all this was a person’s desire to turn his life into art, to give it the greatest Continue reading
Emil Galle (1846 – 1904) became the main figure for glassmaking of the Art Nouveau era. His work refracted the traditions of European and Eastern art, giving rise to a completely new style that combined deep symbolism, close attention to nature, an infinite variety of techniques, amazing freedom and sophistication of form. Emil Galle was born in Nancy, a small city in Lorraine, in the family of an entrepreneur who was engaged in the trade and production of glass and earthenware. Emil Galle’s career began with work at a family business. He later collaborated with the Burgun, Schwerer & Co. factory in Meisenthal. Already in 1867, Halle created an art studio, and in 1894 he headed his glass production in Nancy. If in the early period of his work Halle created mainly sketches of dishes from transparent colorless material with engraving or painting, then in his studio he begins a series of technological experiments. As a result, many new techniques were invented and patented, old technologies were revived, and an unprecedentedly diverse palette of shades of colored glass was created. In 1882, Emil Galle began the production of laminated glass material, which became one of the symbols of Art Nouveau. The most important subject of multilayer decor was engraving, which could be carried out mechanically (wheel engraving) or chemical (etching). The pinnacle of Halle’s work was cameo glass, a laminated glass onto which the Continue reading
For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies — gained access there.
Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions with a square” Continue reading