The alignment of forces in the modern art market: the largest auction houses
If we talk about the current state of the global art market as a whole, then three hegemonic countries - the USA, China, and Great Britain - “rule the ball”…

Continue reading →

"Portrait of Madame X"
When John Singer Sargent unveiled his portrait of a woman in black in 1884, Parisian society literally broke out with indignation. The artist was forced to leave the country, and…

Continue reading →

A developed art market appears in the XVII century. in Holland, which was the first in Europe to become a bourgeois republic. It is there that relations between the artist…

Continue reading →


There are works of art that can be brought into the house, hung on the wall, put in a folder. This print – lithography, linocut, etching, woodcut.

Estamp (in French “Estampe”) is an easel work of art graphics, which must be signed by the artist, each print below is under a painting field.

The art of LITHOGRAPHY is massive, operational, capable of quickly responding to modern events. The visual possibilities are inexhaustible – in it you can reflect all the topics, express all shades, thoughts, feelings, moods.

Lithography has been around for several centuries. Lithography – the Greek word “LITHOS” – stone, “GRAPHO” – I write I paint. This is a flat printing technique, done on lithographic stone, or on a metal plate (the second option is less popular). Stone is flat limestone that is mined in Bavaria and cut into even pieces of different thicknesses. The technique was invented in Germany by A. Seefeld at the turn of the 18th-19th centuries in 1798 in Munich. The first lithographic workshop was opened there, after which lithography spread to Europe: England, France, Russia. One of the first lithographers at the beginning of the 19th century can be noted Franz Krueger and Honore Daumier, whose satirical sheets, especially the series “Good Bourgeois” became known throughout the world.

Portraits, landscapes and illustrations are topics that interested artists in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century. Alexey Orlovsky, Orest Kiprensky, Alexey Venetsianov glorified lithography for centuries.

At the end of the XIX century, German and French masters work in lithography: Toulouse-Lautrec, Pablo Picasso, Salvator Dali. But in Russia at this time they prefer printing industrial labels and reproductions, but from the 20th century, interest in lithographic art, deeply original and peculiar, has begun to rise. This was reflected in the works of Juvenal Korovin, Pavel Kuznetsov, Konstantin Yuon, I. I. Nivinsky, and in the 1950-60s E. Charushin, E. Kibrik, M. Chagall, E. Sidorkin, M. Miturich.

Moscow lithography was born at the beginning of the XX century on the basis of the I. I. Nivinsky studio and was developed in the Combine of Graphic Art – KGI. On Vavilova Street, many graphic artists of the Moscow Union of Artists worked on order in the lithographic workshop. At the same time, on Maslovka Street, in the lithographic studio, a new generation of lithographers announced themselves – Illarion Golitsyn, Guri Zakharov, Igor Obrosov, Victor Duvidov.

And today it is clear that these masters had a huge impact on the development of Soviet graphics. And in the 70s and 80s of the 20th century, a galaxy of young graphic artists came to the studio – Alexander Maximov, A. Livanov, A. Kulinich, L. Egorova, A. Demko, N. Devisheva, E. Kisel, G. Ivanova. At the same time, lithographic workshops were opened at the Chelyuskinskaya creative cottage in the Moscow region, in the Senezh house of creativity, where artists from all over the Soviet Union came. In parallel, studios work in Leningrad, Minsk, Kiev.

So what is lithography? First of all, two are involved in the process of creating a work – an artist and a printer. First, the lithographer printer polishes the stone with corundum – sand of different sizes and structures – then the artist puts the picture on the stone with either thick lithographic ink or a pencil. After the stone with the drawing is ready, the printer etches the stone with acid. And after a while, the printing process begins. The author selects a color and the printer rolls paint on a stone with a roller. The artist lays a sheet of paper, and the printer rolls a stone under the press. Then the impression is taken.

There are many fine techniques. Here is some of them:

1) Freehand drawing – pencil technique. It is distinguished by the softness of chiaroscuro and the mobility of the contour.

2) Scrubbing on asphalt when the drawing is applied with a sharp blade over a layer of carcass.

3) Ink wash, i.e. Water and Brush.

4) Engraving on the stone – work on the etched stone with a needle.

5) Drawing on a special tracing paper – Plur or on paper coated with a special composition – Korn-papyr and subsequent printing.

All work is carried out in a mirror image. A special place is occupied by color or chromolithography. In this technique, at the beginning of the 20th century, Picasso worked in Europe. Marriage, Matisse, and from the middle of the 20th century, almost every graphic work in color lithography in Russia, Moscow and Leningrad. The artist applies a drawing to the prepared stones, and there are as many stones as there are flowers. When printing from two colors when applied, you can get – the third color.

In the years 70-80, two more techniques became popular in lithography: Duplex and Inversion. Duplex is a work from one stone, in which a picture is printed twice (two runs) with the application of one color on another and as a result the work acquires a soft glow. An example is lithography – Nikolai Komarov and Nadezhda Devisheva.

Technique “Inversion” – work with one stone. The artist paints the first color, the print is removed, the printer puts special reagents on the stone, as a result of which the first color is etched and the space between the former pattern rises.

Emil Galle (1846 - 1904) became the main figure for glassmaking of the Art Nouveau era. His work refracted the traditions of European and Eastern art, giving rise to a…


Watercolor is often called the most moody and unpredictable technique. This is due to many nuances of the behavior of water-based paints. An artist inexperienced in watercolor painting, even observing…


Monumental painting. Wall painting
Monumental painting - painting on architectural structures and other stationary foundations. The main technique of monumental painting is a mural, which, together with mosaics and stained glass, is more often…


Watercolor is often called the most moody and unpredictable technique. This is due to many nuances of the behavior of water-based paints. An artist inexperienced in watercolor painting, even observing…