How the Golden Age Changed the World
Historians agree that the Renaissance arose in Italy (several theories have been put forward explaining why this period began in Italy). The wealth of Italy increased significantly XIV-XVI centuries. Favorable geographical position, access to the sea, own port, political and economic stability, coupled with the ability to withstand external pressure, the active development of trade relations with Europe, Asia, the East – all this created fertile ground for prosperity and the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy. Favorable conditions led to the opening of local art schools, to building up talents in various fields of culture, science, literature, philosophy, etc. In addition, in the late Middle Ages Italy consisted of city states that had a certain degree of political freedom. It allowed to achieve artistic and academic progress outside the strict framework. Another reason for the evolution of development in Italy is the “black death” (or plague), which led to a large number of deaths in this country. Cruel reality forced scientists to move away from medieval thoughts about the afterlife and spirituality and think more about their real existence on Earth.
The movement spread to other Italian city-states, such as Venice, Milan, Bologna and Rome. Then, in the 15th century, the ideas of the Renaissance spread from Italy to France, and then throughout Western and Northern Europe.
The Renaissance as a single historical period ended with the fall of Rome in 1527. The gap between the Christian faith and classical humanism led to mannerism in the second half of the 16th century.
The main idea of the Renaissance is humanism
Humanism had several significant features.
– Firstly, as a subject, he accepted a person in the totality of his achievements and manifestations.
– Secondly, he emphasized the unity of the truth of all philosophical and theological schools – the doctrine known as syncretism.
– Thirdly, humanism emphasized the dignity of man.
– Finally, humanism strove to revive the lost human spirit and wisdom.
The effect of humanism was to help people free themselves from the mental limitations imposed by religious orthodoxy, inspire free research, and inspire confidence in the possibilities of human thought and creativity. The first ancestors of early humanistic thoughts were Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, who contributed to the renewal of traditional Greek and Roman culture and values.
Contribution to the Renaissance
Renaissance art tended to realism, which involves the use of perspective. The greatest artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci depicted human anatomy and contributed to the understanding of the human form. The founder of Renaissance painting was Masaccio (1401-1428). The monumentality of the compositions and the high degree of naturalism in his works made Masaccio a key figure in Renaissance painting. Masters of the Northern Renaissance Jan van Eyck and Hugo van der Hus began using oil paint, and also popularized the technique of naturalism. The Renaissance style of architecture revived some elements of ancient Roman and Greek architecture. Renaissance literature, in contrast to medieval literature, focused on human behavior and characteristics (based on the main vector – humanism). Significant breakthroughs in science and technology also occurred during the Renaissance, including the invention of the telescope, glasses, printed materials, gunpowder, a compass for sailors, paper and watches. New musical instruments (violin and harpsichord) contributed to the appearance of the opera. Composers sought to create music with a special emotional effect. Other Renaissance outcomes include the rise of Protestantism, the growth of a capitalist market economy, and the discovery of the New World attributed to Columbus.
The Renaissance period had a long and significant impact on civilization. The jumps in development in geography and science (the Ptolemaic astronomy system) allowed people to better understand the Earth and the Universe. The printing press is one of the most visible and important inventions, which allowed the ideas of scientists to become accessible to the public and to promote education. Renaissance art laid a solid foundation for the development of modern culture