ANTIQUE MARKET OF EUROPE, counterfeit on the ANTIQUE MARKET
A developed art market appears in the XVII century. in Holland, which was the first in Europe to become a bourgeois republic. It is there that relations between the artist and the customer develop. The state and the church cease to be the main customers, and private buyers arise, which means the art and antiques market. After all, before that, the church was the main customer of art objects for artists – in Italy, Germany, England. As such, secular art before the Renaissance did not exist in Europe.
In the XVIII century. Antique trade appears in almost all countries, including Russia. The antique market of St. Petersburg and even partly Moscow in the 18th century already exists actively. Visitors and local antiquaries are active. In Europe at this time, the two main centers of antique trade remain Paris and Rome.
PARIS – CENTER OF ART LIFE OF THE XVIII CENTURY
Paris was a leader in artistic life. It was France in the 18th century. dictated taste and fashion, where the contemporary art market was very developed. Almost everything related to the contemporary art market appeared in Paris in the 18th century. The concept of a salon is actively included in everyday life – this is a regular exhibition of the 18th century, held in the Louvre, then gradually moving to other exposition spaces. The art exhibition and sale, regularly held in France, successfully solved the main goal of the French salon – it helped the artist and the buyer find each other.
In France, art criticism is developing, taking on the role of an intermediary between the artist and the buyer. One of the most famous French art popularisers is Denis Didro, who was an art critic and was actively involved in the promotion of contemporary art. Famous artists such as Jean-Baptiste Dreams and Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin made a name and gained fame largely thanks to the efforts of Didro.
In art criticism, the press began to occupy a significant place, which gave the announcements of the Salons and published responses to them. Didro was a significant figure in the antique market of France at that time. Now he would be called a dealer. It was he who was noted for his collaboration with Catherine II, for whom he was looking for important and interesting paintings. Thanks to him in the 1830s. part of the collection of old masters was transferred to the Hermitage. A telling example is the story of Hercules Poussin, whom Didro quickly bought from a collector who lost the cards and sold it to Catherine II.
At the same time, catalogs of French salons appear – all of them have been documented since 1699. Currently, you can take a catalog and see what paintings were exhibited at the Paris Salon. Publication of catalogs has become increasingly important. So an exhibition without a catalog is not an exhibition, the French believed. In Russia, there was no such practice even in the 19th century, which is why it is more difficult to restore the exhibition life of Moscow in the 1890s than Paris of the 18th century.
XVIII century Paris was also the center of the antique market: there were many collectors of old art, guided by examples of French kings. At all times it was noted that if wealthy people begin to collect a private collection, then they imitate the king, king, etc. as recognized samples of taste. In Paris at the beginning of the XVIII century. Italian painting was very popular, which was taken as a standard of artistic taste. In 1830-40, a fashion for Dutch and Flemish painting arose. The horizons of collectors and professionals are constantly expanding.
Gradually, the interest of European collectors, who had previously preferred only Italians, moved north. Flemish painting became increasingly popular. There was a tendency to redeem the Flemish High Renaissance, found in the collections of the Habsburgs, in aristocratic Italian galleries.
Following the example of Paris, other centers of antique trade are also developing. In the XVIII century. The antique market in St. Petersburg is very active – many people buy paintings. Not only the aristocrats of the upper stratum, but also the middle strata of the nobility were involved in this new wave of love for art. The catalogs and publications of the collections of the nobles Yusupov and Stroganov have been preserved.
It is noteworthy that 1717 Yusupov, among 20 young Russian boyars, was sent by order of Peter I to France to study at the Toulon school of midshipmen. Upon his return, he brought a large collection of ancient paintings. Italians and French imported antiques and works of art, for example, Hermann Johann Klosterman, a German who was born in Holland and who had taken root in Russia since the age of twelve, sold paintings in St. Petersburg. There were famous people who traded in antiques – Fonvizin traded with Klosterman. Art trading was then a good source of income.
Many of Klosterman’s paintings were in the Hermitage collection. Klosterman always left some marks, labels on the backs of paintings. This fact is very important in matters of attribution of paintings. So a careful study of the reverse side of the canvas helps to restore its history. Meet numbers