Engraving Techniques
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ENGLISH CARICATURE.
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ANTIQUE MARKET OF EUROPE, counterfeit on the ANTIQUE MARKET
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SEARCH BREAKTHROUGH PANELS

Types of breakthroughs in size and shape are very different. Round shapes are rare, most often in the direction of the threads of the canvas. Breakthroughs are straight, angular, steps or zigzag.
Most often, breakouts are formed at thin canvases, thick ones are torn less often, but then it is more difficult to restore them. Before bursting a strong, dense canvas resists more strongly, at first it stretches to the limit and then breaks. Therefore, around the through gap, curvatures, bulges or concavities of the canvas are formed that affect the soil and the paint layer. Thin canvases usually tear more easily, with less deformation of the edges of the breakthrough and therefore it is easier to restore.

Due to the action of the canvas tension force, over time the edges of the breakthrough bend and do not converge. To restore such a breakthrough is much more difficult than fresh, especially if it is in the visible part of the picture. Therefore, it is important not to delay the restoration and make it as soon as possible. If there is no way to immediately make a restoration, then you need to try to connect the edges of the breakthrough and stick paper on it from the front side. This will protect against deformation of the edges of the gap and from further screes of paint and soil.

Poor quality restoration of the canvas break
If there is a patch on the back of the picture, then on the front side of the painting a bulge and several small warped sections of the canvas around it are noticeable.
Some restorers try to fix this by pulling threads from all sides to make the edges of the patch look like a fringe. But that doesn’t really help.
There are also patches made of paper, gauze and fabric that are completely inconsistent with the nature of the canvas.
In size and shape, these patches also often do not match the shape and size of the breakout. For example, a huge patch of square shape is pasted on a small breakthrough, or a patch from a thick canvas is glued on a thin canvas of a painting.
Sometimes a breakthrough is sealed with a method of suturing with thread, followed by a primer and putty.
Canvas Breakthrough Restoration Tips
Not all breakthroughs should be patched with patches. Very large canvas breaks are best eliminated by duplication of the second canvas.
You should not put patches on a breakthrough of large lengths (40-60 cm or more) in relatively small paintings.
There are cases when, during a breakthrough, the canvas is greatly stretched and when trying to connect the edges, excess canvas appears. Restoring such a breakthrough requires a lot of experience from the restorer.
A RECEPTION THAT ALLOWS TO BE CARRIED OUT WITHOUT PAYMENTS
This method is used for very small breakouts, punctures, etc.
We put the picture face up, tear the ends of the canvas threads along the edges of the gap with a sharp object (needle, awl, scalpel tip), we connect the formed rags by interlacing them. After this, the place of the breakthrough and the healthy sections of the painting adjacent to it are 2-3 cm around, spread with fish glue and glue with tissue paper. When the glue begins to dry, iron the iron through a pad of thick paper. Then, until the glue has completely dried, we put it under the press to even out the warped sections of the canvas. Before leaving the canvas to dry completely, it is important to make sure that the picture does not stick on the back of the canvas to the work surface. After complete drying, we turn the picture over and carefully putty the place of the breakthrough. Putty can be kneaded from a dry pigment (ocher or chalk) on the same glue. After drying, smooth the putty. Then carefully remove the paper from the front of the painting, then remove the glue remaining on the surface of the painting.
Sometimes, as a gluing agent, damar mastic or rosin is used. When the breakthrough fibers are already disheveled and intertwined with each other, we smooth the breakthrough place through the paper. After that, we put a piece of resin on the intertwined fibers and, without touching the colorful scraper, warm up with the tip of the iron. Due to the instant hardening of the resin, this restoration method is the fastest. If something went wrong, the resin is easily removed. This method is less good than the previous one, since fish glue is more elastic and paint, soil and scree around the breakout are additionally fixed.

PATCH BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY
To begin, consider the best material for patches. Most often, the old canvas is used for patches, since the new canvas can tighten the restoration site, and the old canvas is more stable and less prone to reactions to climate change and air humidity. When using a new canvas, it is advisable to boil it in water, degrease, boil factory sizing, dry and smooth.
The thickness of the patch should correspond to the thickness of the canvas of the picture. A patch from a thick canvas and vice versa cannot be glued onto a thin canvas of a painting. In the first case, the patch can pull off the canvas, which will be harmful, in the second – the patch will not be able to hold the torn parts of the picture smoothly, long and firmly.
We stretch the patches on the board, fix the edges so that the canvas does not curl up and glue it twice with fish glue in half with honey.

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