Monumental painting. Wall painting
Monumental painting – painting on architectural structures and other stationary foundations. The main technique of monumental painting is a mural, which, together with mosaics and stained glass, is more often called monumental and applied art.
The tradition of painting walls and ceilings dates back to time immemorial. Traces of culture to decorate your home with objects of art reach us since the time of the Paleolithic. Often they had sacred and ritual meaning. Numerous cave paintings have survived to this day and have been sources of inspiration for artists for many subsequent centuries.
Studying the history of ancient cultures, we everywhere meet with monuments of monumental painting. They not only give us artistic pleasure, but also talk about life, life, work, wars of the peoples of Ancient Egypt, India, China, Mexico and other countries.
In the European history of monumental art, one of the first steps was the development of Egyptian art (4-3 thousand BC). Wall murals created in Egypt conquer hearts today with their perfection and conciseness. For centuries, the technique of decorative wall painting in Egypt has been handed down from generation to generation, thereby adding to the canon of the image of people, animals, various events, certain traditions and stylistics of images have arisen.
In ancient Greece (the end of the 5–4 century BC), art began to look for ways to convey the feelings of a person, heroic motifs intertwined with lyrical compositions. The development of the culture of Rome gave a great impetus to the development of architecture and decoration of the home. Wall and ceiling painting has become more systematic. The Romans even used wall painting to decorate the facades of their buildings.
In the Middle Ages, the development of the influence of the church on human life also introduced a new round in the history of European art. The spiritual content of the images was combined with decorativeness, church painting began to develop actively. Italy has become the birthplace of great architectural and pictorial creations, giving mankind brilliant masters, whose names and works today are admirable. The term “fresco” (translated from Italian “affresco” – “raw”) – of Italian origin. Fresco – a letter on raw still fresh calcareous soil – has become the most popular wall painting technique. Until the beginning of the XVI century, according to the dried up “clean fresco”, the details were registered with tempera, which required the highest skill from artists. Soon there appeared a painting on dry plaster “all fresco”.
Over time, wall painting began to be performed not only in churches, but also in residential interiors, subjects became more secular. “Alfrein” painting is developing, which imitates different types of decorative finishes. The fake murals, false windows and doors, which visually increased the space of the interior space, are being revived, popular even in the late Roman Empire. This interior design is very popular today.
A special flourishing of the value of the artistic painting of walls and ceilings in the interior falls on the Baroque period. The magnificent decoration of the halls, with their complex, ornate stucco molding, was always supplemented by wall panels; plots of diverse subjects and complexity have invariably been a hallmark of the halls.
In the Art Nouveau period, the art of graphics is developing to a large extent, and wall painting fades into the background. In the decoration of interiors, ornaments and complex interweaving of patterns began to dominate. With the advent of wallpaper, they began to resort to frescoes less and less for wall decoration.
But in the USSR, monumental wall paintings (along with other types of monumental art) moved from private and church interiors to factories, factories, to the Palaces of Culture, the foyer of theaters, and the ceiling lamps of the Metro. Monumental painting has become an indispensable link in the entire artistic culture. She depended on the development of architecture and was firmly connected with it.
Today, monumental wall painting is developing both in a private interior and in public space, using the most modern materials and sometimes acquiring the most unexpected forms, such as, for example, art graffiti.