GLASS MODERN EMIL GALLE
Emil Galle (1846 - 1904) became the main figure for glassmaking of the Art Nouveau era. His work refracted the traditions of European and Eastern art, giving rise to a…

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How the Golden Age Changed the World
Historians agree that the Renaissance arose in Italy (several theories have been put forward explaining why this period began in Italy). The wealth of Italy increased significantly XIV-XVI centuries. Favorable…

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George Washington Book Sign
George Washington was commander in chief of the continental army during the Revolutionary War in 1775-1781 and the first president of the United States in 1789-1897. Naturally, the bookplate of…

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the Renaissance

SEARCH BREAKTHROUGH PANELS

Types of breakthroughs in size and shape are very different. Round shapes are rare, most often in the direction of the threads of the canvas. Breakthroughs are straight, angular, steps or zigzag.
Most often, breakouts are formed at thin canvases, thick ones are torn less often, but then it is more difficult to restore them. Before bursting a strong, dense canvas resists more strongly, at first it stretches to the limit and then breaks. Therefore, around the through gap, curvatures, bulges or concavities of the canvas are formed that affect the soil and the paint layer. Thin canvases usually tear more easily, with less deformation of the edges of the breakthrough and therefore it is easier to restore.

Due to the action of the canvas tension force, over time the edges of the breakthrough bend and do not converge. To restore such a breakthrough is Continue reading

EXCLIBRES OF MASONS

For a long time, the construction of huge cathedrals continued in the Middle Ages. Builders settled in the immediate vicinity of the construction site, gradually entering into close relations with each other. Over time, these unions formed workshops. The rules for relations between members, the admission of new comrades, and the resolution of disputes were developed. A ceremony was also established for various occasions. The room where they stored their tools was called a lodge. Hence, the brotherhood of builders and their assemblies were called the “lodge”, and their members – free masons (free mason). Then the lodge became known as the main organizational unit of Freemasonry. As you know, the workshops were closed to people of other professions. But from the end of the 16th century, non-construction workers — “outside masons”, rich and scholars who had the idea to use building partnerships as the basis for creating secret isoteric societies — gained access there.

Masons carry out ritual ceremonies and, although there is no single Masonic ritual, many of them are very similar. For example, all Masons use in their rites the architectural symbolism of the tools of medieval masons, especially two of them – a square and a pair of compasses, which are always in the box. Masons should “verify their actions with a square” Continue reading

MODERN PORTRAIT EXCLIBRIS

Portrait bookplate – one of the oldest types of book characters – appeared after the stamp. The first engraved bookplate is considered the emblem of the knight Bernhardt von Rohrbach, made in 1460 by the German engraver Bartel Schön. The portrait ex-libris was not long in coming; the earliest surviving portrait ex-libris was made in 1498 for the Basel Bishop of Limberger. It is not necessary to doubt the time of appearance of this bookplate, it shows the date of its creation, no date was indicated on any of its predecessors.

The origin of portraiture dates back to ancient times. The oldest known attempt to portray a human face has 27 millennia, it was discovered in the cave of Villoner near the French city of Angouleme in the department of Charente. The word “portrait” originates from the outdated French word portraire – to write off someone’s image. The first who proposed to use the term “portrait” exclusively for “depicting a (concrete) human being” was the French art historian and official court historian of King Louis XIV Andre Felibien. Continue reading

“Moonlit Night on the Dnieper”: Why did the audience look for a light bulb behind Kuindzhi’s picture
The picture "Moonlit Night on the Dnieper" can be safely called the most famous masterpiece of the Russian artist Arkhip Kuindzhi - one of the greatest Russian landscape painters of…

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Art criticism analysis and description of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s “Nude” painting
Parisians are born with all the shortcomings, but the wonderful fairy gives any flaw to their charm and enchantment. This fairy is grace. Heinrich Heine The painting “Naked” was written…

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SEARCH BREAKTHROUGH PANELS
Types of breakthroughs in size and shape are very different. Round shapes are rare, most often in the direction of the threads of the canvas. Breakthroughs are straight, angular, steps…

...

How the Golden Age Changed the World
Historians agree that the Renaissance arose in Italy (several theories have been put forward explaining why this period began in Italy). The wealth of Italy increased significantly XIV-XVI centuries. Favorable…

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