Types of breakthroughs in size and shape are very different. Round shapes are rare, most often in the direction of the threads of the canvas. Breakthroughs are straight, angular, steps or zigzag.
Most often, breakouts are formed at thin canvases, thick ones are torn less often, but then it is more difficult to restore them. Before bursting a strong, dense canvas resists more strongly, at first it stretches to the limit and then breaks. Therefore, around the through gap, curvatures, bulges or concavities of the canvas are formed that affect the soil and the paint layer. Thin canvases usually tear more easily, with less deformation of the edges of the breakthrough and therefore it is easier to restore.
Due to the action of the canvas tension force, over time the edges of the breakthrough bend and do not converge. To restore such a breakthrough is Continue reading
On Monday, December 5, 1836, a report on heraldic book signs was published by his member Rev. Daniel Parsons at the Society of Heraldry and Archeology of the University of Oxford, which was published in the Third Annual Report of the Society on May 31, 1837 goals. This is the first print book about bookplates, which appeared in England after several centuries people in many European countries used these small pieces of paper, their style and technique reflect the spirit and fashion of the era in which they were created. The first bookplates were heraldic, their design obeyed the canons of heraldry. Heraldic bookplates can tell us about the nobility of the owner’s family, his titles, occupation and seniority in the family. Daniel Parsons intended to write The Story of the Bookplate, but, unfortunately, did not live to publish.
The English bookplate of the Tudor era. People began to seriously engage in collecting, and, therefore, the study of bookplate in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1874, the book French Ex libris was published, by Auguste Poulet-Malassis (1825-1878), and the following year this book with significant additions to the text and illustrations was published in the second edition. England took the baton. In London, in 1880, L. Warren’s book Continue reading